Angkorwat cambodia vishnu temple










Angkorwat- Introduction
         Angkorwat is a wonder on earth showing the caliber of supremacy of Hindu knowledge in terms of architectural science combining together with cosmology ,astrology ,numerology and historical events of Indian religion. If there is any place in world to see-its angkorwat. 
                      
                        
Everyone must see this at least for once in life.

An extremely spectacular and stunning showcase of ancient knowledge challenging the latest technology today to solve its mysteries.
Located in Northwestern Cambodia, Angkor, the Capital of the Ancient Khmer Empire was possibly founded around the Ninth Century AD by King Jayavarman II. However, the city reached its peak glory in the 12th Century under Kings Suryavarman II and Jayavarman VII. The most beautiful and most famous monument in the city, Angkor Wat, lies about one kilometer south of the Royal town of Angkor Thom which was founded by Jayavarman VII.

The Temple of Angkor Wat was dedicated to the Hindu God Vishnu by King Suryavarman II, who reigned between AD 1131 and 1150. The Temple was constructed over a period of 30 years, and illustrates some of the most beautiful examples of Khmer and Hindu art. Covering an area of about 81 hectares, the complex consists of five towers, which are presently shown on the Cambodian national flag. These towers are believed to represent the five peaks of Mount Meru, the Home of Gods and Center of the Hindu Universe. Angkor Wat features the longest continuous bas-relief in the world, which runs along the outer gallery walls, narrating stories from Hindu Mythology.

With the decline of the Ancient Khmer Empire, Angkor Wat was turned into a Buddhist Templeand was continuously maintained, which helped its preservation. In 1992, the UNESCO World Heritage Committee declared the monument, and the whole city of Angkor, a World Heritage Site.










The Historical Background of Angkor Wat
The Khmer kings of Kampuchea (Cambodia) trace their ancestry to the legendary Indian Kaund. In. ya and to Soma, a Khmer princess, and this lineage came to be called somavam. sa. In the 7th century, another legendary couple, Kambu and Mera, established a different lineage, the suryavansa. At first there were several warring kings. The unication of the state is seen with King Jayavarman II, who in 802, in a ceremony on Mount Kulen, about 30 km northeast of Angkor, declared himself a \universal ruler"(cakravartin). The kings of the Khmer empire ruled over a domain that, at its broadest, reached from what is now southern Vietnam to Yunan, China and from Vietnam westward to the Bay of Bengal. The structures one sees at Angkor today, more than 100 temples in all, are the surviving religious remains of a grand social and administrative metropolis whose other buildings - palaces, public buildings, and houses were all built of wood and are long since decayed and gone. As in most parts of India where wood was plentiful, only the gods had the right to live in houses of stone or brick; the sovereigns and the common folk lived in pavilions and houses of wood.
Over the half-millennia of Khmer rule, the city of Angkor became a great pilgrimage destination because of the notion of Devaraja, that has been ex- plained by Lokesh Chandra as a coronation icon. Jayavarman II (802-850) was the first to use this royal icon. According to Lokesh Chandra, Devaraja means `King of the Gods' and not `God-King'. He is Indra and refers to the highly ecacious an indra mahabhiseka of the Rig Vedic rajasuya tradition as elaborated in the Aitareya-Brahman. It was not a simple but a great coronation, a mahabhiseka. It was of extraordinary significance that Jayavarman II performed a Rig Vedic rite, which lent him charismatic authority.
The increasingly larger temples built by the Khmer kings continued to function as the locus of the devotion to the Devaraja, and were at the same time earthly and symbolic representations of mythical Mount Meru, the cosmological home of the Hindu gods and the axis of the world-system. The symbol of the king's divine authority was the sign (linga) of Siva within the temple's inner sanctuary, which represented both the axes of the physical and the psychological worlds. The worship of Siva and Vishnu separately, and together as Harihara, had been popular for considerable time in southeast
 Asia Jayavarman's chief innovation was to use ancient Vedic mahabhiseka to done the symbol of government. To quote Lokesh Chandra further, the icon used by Jayavarman II for his Indra mahabhiseka, his Devaraja Indra (icon), became the symbol of the Cambodian state, as the sacred and secular sovereignty denoted by Prajapatisvara/Brahma, as the continuity of the vital owe of the universal (jagat) into the stability of the terrestrial kingdom (raja = rajya). As the founder of the new Kambuja state, he contributed a national palladium under its Cambodian appellation kamraten jagat  raja/rajya. Whenever the capital was transferred by his successors, it was taken to the new nagar, for it had to be constantly in the capital."
 Angkor Wat is the supreme masterpiece of Khmer art. The descriptions of the temple fall far short of communicating the great size, the perfect pro-portions, and the astoundingly beautiful sculpture that everywhere presents itself to the viewer. Its architecture is majestic and its representation of form and movement from Indian mythology has astonishing grace and power. The inner galleries of the temple have depiction of the battle of Kurukshetra, procession of King Suryavarman and his ministers, scenes from heavens and hells, churning of the sea of milk, the battle of Vishnu and the asuras, victory of Krishna over Bana, battle of the Devas and Asuras, Ravana shaking Kailasha with Siva and Parvati atop, and the battle of Lanka between Rama and Ravana. These and other scenes are drawn with great artistic beauty. No wonder, the temple ranks amongst the greatest creations of human imagination. As an aside, it should be mentioned that some European scholars tended to date Angkor Wat as being after the 14th century. The principal reason was that some decorative motifs at Angkor Wat show a striking resemblance to certain motifs of the Italian Renaissance. This argument, which is similar to the one used in dating Indian mathematical texts vis-à-vis Greek texts, has been proven to be wrong. In the words of Clyde’s, if there is some connection between the twelth-century art of the Khmers, the direct heirs to the previous centuries, and the art of the Renaissance, it must have been due to a reverse process, that is to the importation of oriental objects into Europe." Mannikka proposes that the royal priest Divakarapandita was the chief architect of the temple. He is the priest most praised in inscriptions; an image of him is to be found at Wat Phu. Divakara is estimated to have lived around 1050-1135. 

Astronomy of Altars and Temples :-

To understand the astronomical aspects of Angkor Wat it is necessary to begin with the Indian traditions of altar and temple design on which it is based. And since the Angkor Wat ritual hearkened to the Vedic past, it stands to reason that its astronomy was also connected to the Vedic astronomical tradition.
 Vedic altars :-
In a series of publications I have shown that the Vedic altars had an astronomical basis related to the reconciliation of the lunar and solar years. There altars symbolized the universe and there were three types of altars representing the earth, the space and the sky. The altar for the earth was drawn as circular where as the sky (or heaven) altar was drawn as square. The geometric problems of circulator of a square and that of squaring a circle are a result of equating the earth and the sky altars. Their altars were surrounded by 360 enclosing stones, of these 21 were around the earth altar, 78 around the space altar and 261 around the sky altar. In other words, the earth, the space, and the sky are symbolically assigned the numbers 21, 78, and 261. Considering the earth/cosmos dichotomy, the two numbers are 21 and 339 since cosmos includes the space and the sky. The main altar was built in five layers. The basic square shape was modified to several forms, such as falcon and turtle. These altars were built in five layers, of a thousand bricks of specified shapes. The construction of these altars required the solution to several geometric and algebraic problems. Two different kinds of bricks were used the special and the ordinary. The total number of the special bricks used was 396, explained as 360 days of the year and the additional 36 days of the intercalary month. Two kinds of day count the solar day, and tithes, whose mean value is the lunar year divided into 360 parts. Considering the altar by layers, the first has 98, the second has 41, the third has 71, the fourth has 47 and the fifth has 138. The sum of the bricks in the fourth and the fifth layers equals 186 tithes of the Half-year. The number of bricks in the third and the fourth layers equals the integer nearest to one third the number of days in the lunar year, and the number of bricks in the third layer equals the integer nearest to one fifth of the number of days in the lunar year, and so on. The number of ordinary bricks equals 10,800 which equals the number of muhurtas in a year (1 day = 30 muhurtas), or equivalently the number of days in 30 years of these 21 go into the garhapatya, 78 into the eight dhis . n . ya hearths, and the rest go into the  ahavanya altar. The main altar was an area of 7 units. This area was taken to be equivalent to the nominal year of 360 days. Now, each subsequent year, the shape was to be reproduced with the area increased by one unit. Three different years were considered: (1) nakshatra, or a year of 324 days (sometimes 324 tithes) obtained by considering 12 months of 27 days each, where this 27 is the ideal number of days in a lunar month; (2) lunar, which is a fraction more than 354 days (360 tithes); and (3) solar, which is in excess of 365 days (between 371 and 372 tithes). A well-known altar ritual says that altars should be constructed in a sequence of 95, with progressively increasing areas. The increase in the area, by one unit yearly, in building progressively larger _re altars is 48 tithes which is about equal to the intercalation required to make the nakshatra year in tithes equal to the solar year in tithes. But there is residual excess, which in 95 years adds up to 89 tithes; it appears that after this period such a correction was made. The 95-year cycle corresponds to the tropical year being equal to 365.24675 days. The cycles needed to harmonize various motions led to the concept of increasing periods and world ages. The number of syllables in the Rig-Veda confirms the textual references that the book was to represent a symbolic altar. According to various early texts, the number of syllables in the Rig-Veda is 432,000, which is the number of muhurtas in forty years. In reality the syllable count is somewhat less because certain syllables are supposed to be left unspoken. The verse count of the Rig-Veda can be viewed as the number of sky days in forty years or 261 40 = 10; 440, and the verse count of all the Vedas is 261 78 = 20; 358.
 The Brahmanas and the Sulbasutras tell us about the altar of chandas and meters, so we would expect that the total Rig Vedic hymn count of 1017 and the group count of 216 have particular significance. Owing to the pervasive tripartite ideology of the Vedic books we choose to view the hymn number as 339 _3. The tripartite ideology refers to the consideration of time in three divisions of past, present, and future and the consideration of space in the three divisions of the northern celestial hemisphere, the plane that is at right angle to the earth's axis, and the southern celestial hemisphere. The number 6 the number of days in the lunar year, and so on. The number of ordinary bricks equals 10,800, which equal the number of muhurtas in a year (1 day = 30 muhurtas), or equivalently the number of days in 30 years. Of these 21 go into the garhapatya, 78 into the eight-dhisnya hearths, and the rest go into the ahavanya altar.
The main altar was an area of 7 units. This area was taken to be equivalent to the nominal year of 360 days. Now, each subsequent year, the shape was to be reproduced with the area increased by one unit. Three different years were considered: (1) nakshatra, or a year of 324 days (sometimes 324 tithes) obtained by considering 12 months of 27 days each, where this 27 is the ideal number of days in a lunar month; (2) lunar, which is a fraction more than 354 days (360 tithes); and (3) solar, which is in excess of 365 days (between 371 and 372 tithes). A well-known altar ritual says that altars should be constructed in a sequence of 95, with progressively increasing areas. The increase in the area, by one unit yearly, in building progressively larger _re altars is 48 tithes which is about equal to the intercalation required to make the nakshatra year in tithes equal to the solar year in tithes. But there is residual excess, which in 95 years adds up to 89 tithes it appears that after this period such a correction was made. The 95-year cycle corresponds to the tropical year being equal to 365.24675 days. The cycles needed to harmonize various motions led to the concept of increasing periods and world ages. The number of syllables in the Rig-Veda confirms the textual references that the book was to represent a symbolic altar. According to various early texts, the number of syllables in the Rig-Veda is 432,000, which is the number of muhurtas in forty years. In reality the syllable count is somewhat less because certain syllables are supposed to be left unspoken. The verse count of the Rig-Veda can be viewed as the number of sky days in forty years or 261 40 = 10; 440, and the verse count of all the Vedas is 261 78 = 20; 358. The Brahmanas and the Sulbasutras tell us about the altar of chandas and meters, so we would expect that the total Rig Vedic hymn count of 1017 and the group count of 216 have particular significance. Owing to the pervasive tripartite ideology of the Vedic books we choose to view the hymn number as 339 3. The tripartite ideology refers to the consideration of time in three divisions of past, present, and future and the consideration of space in the three divisions of the northern celestial hemisphere, the plane that is at right angle to the earth's axis, and the southern celestial hemisphere. The number 6339 is simply the number of disks of the sun or the moon to measure the path across the sky: ¡ 108 ¡ 339: The number 216 represents the distance to the sky, which was twice the distance of 108 to the sun. The Rig Vedic code then expresses a fundamental connection between the numbers 339 and 108. The number 108 is actually the average distance that the sun is in terms of its own diameter from the earth; likewise, it is also the average distance that the moon is in terms of its own diameter from the earth. It is owing to this marvelous coincidence that the angular size of the sun and the moon, viewed from the earth, is about identical. It is easy to compute this number. The angular measurement of the sun can be obtained quite easily during an eclipse. The angular measurement of the moon can be made on any clear full moon night. An easy check on this measurement would be to make a person hold a pole at a distance that is exactly 108 times its length and confirm that the angular measurement is the same. Nevertheless, the computation of this number would require careful observations. Note that 108 are an average and due to the elasticity of the orbits of the earth and the moon the distances vary with the seasons. It is likely, therefore, that observations did not lead to the precise number 108, but it was chosen as the true value of the distance since it is equal to 27 4, because of the mapping of the sky into 27 nakshatras.
 Temples :-
The temple is considered in the image of the Cosmic Purusha, on whose body is displayed all creation in its materiality and movement. Paradoxically, the space of the Purusha is (Rig-Veda 10.90), in the sanctuary only tenangers wide, although he pervades the earth. The temple construction begins with the Vastupurusha mandala, which is a yantra, mostly divided into 64 (8 8) or 81 (9 9) squares, which are the seats of 45 divinities. Brahma is at the centre, around him 12 squares represent the Adityas, and in the outer circle are 28 squares that represent the nakshatras (Figure 4). The Vastumandala with its border is the place where the motions of the sun and the moon and the planets are reconciled. It is the Vastu in which the decrepit, old Cyavana of the Rig-Veda 1.116.10 asks his sons to put him down so that he would become young again. Cyavana is the moon and Sukanya, whom he desires, is the sun. 10 In the basic Vedic scheme the circle represents the earth and the square represents the heavens or the deity. But the altar or the temple, as a represent 7 tation of the dynamism of the universe, requires a breaking of the symmetry of the square. As seen clearly in the agnicayana and other altar constructions, this is done in a variety of ways. Although the main altar might be square or its derivative, the overall sacred area is taken to be a departure from this shape. In particular, the temples to the goddess are drawn on a rectangular plan. In Siva or Vishnu temples, which are square, change is represented by a play of diagonal lines. These diagonals are essentially kinetic and are therefore representative of movement and stress. They embody the time-factor in a composition. 11 In the Silpa Parkas 1.90-106, a 9th-12th century Orissan temple architecture text, Ramacandra Kaul_ ac_ ara describes 12 the Yogi n Yantra for the layout of the goddess temple. Alice Boner writes, 13 \[the Dev temples] represent the creative expanding forces, and therefore could not be logically be represented by a square, which is an eminently static form. While the immanent supreme principle is represented by the number ONE, the first stir of creation initiates duality, which is the number TWO, and is the producer of THREE and FOUR and all subsequent numbers up to the innate." The dynamism is expressed by a doubling of the square to a rectangle or the ratio 1:2, where the garbhagrha is now built in the geometrical centre. For a three dimensional structure, the basic symmetry-breaking ratio is 1:2:4, which can be continued further to another doubling. The constructions of the Harappan period (2600-1900 BC) appear to be according to the same principles. The dynamic ratio of 1:2:4 is the most commonly encountered size of rooms of houses, in the overall plan of houses and the construction of large public buildings. This ratio is also re ected in the overall plan of the large walled sector at Mohenjodaro called the citadel mound. It is even the most commonly encountered brick size. 15 There is evidence of temple structures in the Harappan period in addition to iconography that recalls the goddess. Structures dating to 2000 BC, built in the design of yantras, have been unearthed in northern Afghanistan. 16 There is ample evidence for continuity in the religious and artistic tradition of India from the Harappan times, if not earlier. These ideas and the astronomical basis continued in the architecture of the temples of the classical age. Kramrisch has argued that the number 25,920, the number of years in the processional period of the earth, is also re ected in the plan of the temple. As a representation of the macrocosm, change in the temple is described 8 In terms of the motions of the heavenly bodies. According to Alice Boner the temple must in its space-directions, be established in relation to the motion of the heavenly bodies. But in as much as it incorporates in a single synthesis the unequal courses of the sun, the moon and the planets, it also symbolizes all recurrent time sequences: the day, the month, the year and the wider cycles marked by the recurrence of a complete cycle of eclipses, when the sun and the moon are readjusted in their original positions, a new cycle of creation begins.
 The Hindu temple, as a conception of the astronomical frame of the universe, serves the same purpose as the Vedic altar, which reconciled the motions of the sun and the moon. The progressive complexity of the classical temple was inevitable given an attempt to bring in the cycles of the planets and other ideas of the yugas into the scheme.
 Numbers at Angkor Wat :-
The temple has 1300-m north-south axis and 1500-m west-east axis. The temple faces toward the west because that situates it to the east with respect to the worshiper, the appropriate direction for Vishnu who is a solar deity. At the heart of the temple are three rising, concentric galleries. Bordering these is further space, and a rectangular moat. About 40 m in from the moat is a laterite wall, 4.5 m high, with large single entrances from the east, north, and south, and have entrances on the west. Mannikka has suggested that the Vastupurusha mandala at Angkor Wat forms a grid of 49, rather than the standard of 64 or 81. Various numbers from the Vedic astronomy are encountered at Angkor Wat as simple counts, or measurements in cubits, or phyeam = 4 cubits. Some of these represent just the basic constants of the system, while others provide specific information related to the orientation of the temple related to the nakshatras and the positions of the planets. For an example of the latter, consider that the length of the north-south axis, door to door, in the sanctuary is 13.41 cubits, which according to Mannikka represents the fact that the north celestial pole is 13.43 degrees above the northern horizon at 9 Angkor. This number is also basic to the second gallery, devoted to Brahma who is \situated" at the north celestial pole. The order in which the planets rose over the eastern horizon at the end of July 1131 is represented in the bas-relief of the northwest corner pavilion: Saturn (Agni), Jupiter (Indra), Venus (Kubera), Mars (Skanda), and Mercury (Varuna). According to Mannikka, the design of the temple can be seen in three architectural units: 1. Central sanctuary: Mount Meru, with 45 gods, the north celestial pole, the centre of the mandala, the spring equinox, the axis of the earth, Vishnu, Brahma, and King Suryavarman 2. Circumferences: the ecliptic, the moon and lunar periodicity, the con- stellations, the planets, the celestial year, the kreta Yuga, the grid of the mandala, the history of King Suryavarman 3. Axes: the building blocks of time (60, 108), the yuga cycles, the so lunar year, the lunar year, historical dates in Suryavarman's reign, the mandala and its transformation of time, and, finally, the solar year and lunar time cycles from the vantage point of Mount Meru Some basic numbers that we encounter frequently in the architectural plan are give below. For more examples see the book by Mannikka which, however, does not recognize the special place of the altar numbers 78 and 261. Neither does it know the correct significance of the number 108. 21 The earth number shows up as the number of steps to the libraries. 27/28 This count of nakshatras is represented at numerous places; the total inner axes of the sanctuary. 32/33 This represents the number of devas and it is found as the number of pillars, windows and various lengths. 44/45 The number of divinities of the Vastupurusha mandala is shown in the total number of steps, main entrance and anking Central Western entrances. As 450 cubits, various axial entrances and circumference of gallery. 10 Angkor. This number is also basic to the second gallery, devoted to Brahmha who is \situated" at the north celestial pole. The order in which the planets rose over the eastern horizon at the end of July 1131 is represented in the bas-relief of the northwest corner pavilion: Saturn (Agni), Jupiter (Indra), Venus (Kubera), Mars (Skanda), and Mercury (Varuna). According to Mannikka, the design of the temple can be seen in three architectural units: 1. Central sanctuary: Mount Meru, with 45 gods, the north celestial pole, the centre of the mandala, the spring equinox, the axis of the earth, Vishnu, Brahma, and King Suryavarman 2. Circumferences: the ecliptic, the moon and lunar periodicity, the constellations, the planets, the celestial year, the kreta Yuga, the grid of the mandala, the history of King Suryavarman 3. Axes: the building blocks of time (60, 108), the yuga cycles, the so lunar year, the lunar year, historical dates in Suryavarman's reign, the mandala and its transformation of time, and, finally, the solar year and lunar time cycles from the vantage point of Mount Meru Some basic numbers that we encounter frequently in the architectural plan are give below. For more examples see the book by Mannikka which, however, does not recognize the special place of the altar numbers 78 and 261. Neither does it know the correct significance of the number 108. 21 The earth number shows up as the number of steps to the libraries. 27/28 This count of nakshatras is represented at numerous places; the total inner axes of the sanctuary. 32/33 This represents the number of devas and it is found as the number of pillars, windows and various lengths. 44/45 The number of divinities of the Vastupurusha mandala are shown in the total number of steps, main entrance and anking Central Western entrances. As 450 cubits, various axial entrances and circumference of gallery. 10 days in the lunar month, the days of the solar month, and so on.20 Lunar observations appear to have been made from the causeway. The author as being derived from the Satapatha Brahmana recently explained the division of the year into the two halves of 189 and 176.37. In layer 5 of the altar described in the Satapatha, a division of the year into the two halves in the proportion 15:14 is given (Figure 5). 21 This proportion corresponds to the numbers, 189 and 176.4, which are just the numbers, used at Angkor Wat. Figure 6 explains the physics behind the asymmetry in the sun's orbit. As one can see, the period from the autumnal equinox to the vernal equinox is smaller than the opposite circuit. The interval between successive perihelia, the anomalistic year, is 365.25964 days, which is 0.01845 days longer than the tropical year on which our calendar is based. In 1000 calendar years, the date of the perihelion advances about 18 days. Considering Figure 6 again, the perihelion was roughly on December 18 during the time of the construction of Angkor Wat; and it was on October 27 during early 2nd millennium BC, the most likely period of the composition of the Satapatha Brahmana. In all these cases the perihelion occurs during the autumn/winter period, and so by Kepler's 2nd law we know that the speed of the sun in its orbit around the earth is greater during the months autumn and winter than in spring and summer. During the time of the Satapatha Brahmana, the apogee was about midway through the spring season, which was then somewhat more than 94 days. The extra brick in the spring quadrant (Figure 5) may symbolically re ect the discovery that this quarter had more days in it, a discovery made at a time when a satisfactory formula had not yet been developed for the progress of the sun on the ecliptic. It is possible that the period from the spring equinox to the fall equinox was taken to be about 189 days by doubling the period of the spring season; 176 days became the period of the reverse circuit. Why not assume that there was no more to these numbers than a division into the proportions 15:14 derived from some numerological considerations?
 First, we have the evidence from the Satapatha Brahmana that expressly informs us that the count of days from the winter to the summer solstice was different, and shorter, than the count in the reverse order. Second, the altar design is explicitly about the sun's circuit around the earth and so the proportion of 15:14 must be converted into the appropriate count with respect 12 to the length of the year. Furthermore, the many astronomical alignments of the Angkor Wat impress on us the fairly elaborate system of naked-eye observations that were the basis of the temple astronomy. But since precisely the same numbers were used in Angkor Wat as were mentioned much earlier in the Satapatha Brahmana, one would presume that these numbers were used as a part of ancient sacred lore. Looking at Figure 6, we see the count between the solstices has been changing much faster than the count between the equinoxes because the perigee has been, in the past two thousand years somewhere between the autumn and the winter months. Because of its relative constancy, the count between the equinoxes became one of the primary `constants' of Vedic/Puranic astronomy. The equinoctial half-years are currently about 186 and 179, respectively; and were not much different when Angkor Wat temple was constructed. Given that the length of the year was known to considerable precision there is no reason to assume that these counts were not known. But it appears that a `normative' division according to the ancient proportion was used.
 As it was known that the solar year was about 365.25 days, the old proportion of 15:14 would give the distribution 188.92 and 176.33, and that is very much the Angkor Wat numbers of 189 and 176.37 within human error. In other words, the choice of these ‘constants’ may have been determined by the use of the ancient proportion of 15:14.
 Concluding Remarks :-
Although it has long been known that the Angkor Wat temple astronomy is derived from Puranic and Siddhantic ideas, the Vedic roots of this astronomy have only recently been identified. We have found the Vedic altar astronomy numbers 21, 78, and 261 in the temple design. The division of the solar year into two unequal halves is explained by the design of the Satapatha Brahmana altar on the asymmetric circuit of the sun. We need a more thorough examination of the altar numbers in the design to interpret their significance in the context of different architectural units so brilliantly decoded by Mannikka. For example, was there any obvious in uence of the Agnicayana ritual on the phased construction of the Angkor Wat temple? The decoding of the astronomy of Angkor Wat has opened the way for a similar examination of medieval and ancient Indian temple complexes, which 13 were also built with basic astronomical observations in minds.












The Role of Astronomy at Angkor Wat
Astronomy enters into the meaning, format, and bas-relief decoration of the temple in three different ways. First of all, when the measurements of Angkor Wat are translated into the cubit unit used in the temple's construction, lunar and solar calendrical cycles are revealed in axial and circumference lengths. Secondly, there are several solar and lunar alignments between western points along the axis and the towers in the central galleries. Both the calendrical dimensions and the alignments were definitive elements in determining the format of the temple. In addition to actual sight lines, the solstice sun casts light onto specific segments of the bas-reliefs and corridors, planned so as to literally illuminate the selected segments with solar meaning. Finally, the composition and content of the panels of bas-reliefs further define solar and lunar periodicity. In particular, the scene of the Churning of the Sea of Milk (Milky Way) has been chosen here to demonstrate its calendrical function. In the end, we find that the king himself, in conjunction with the solar god Vishnu in the central sanctuary, is an integral part of the solar and lunar symbolism revealed in the measurements, alignments, and bas-reliefs.
The temple of Angkor Wat at the site of Angkor in northwestern Cambodia was started in 1113 CE when King Suryavarman II rose to power. Suryavarman died around 1150, at which time all work on the temple came to a halt. In this brief span of 37 years, the king endowed a monument that is now recognized as one of the world's most notable architectural achievements.
Angkor Wat did not rise up from a tabula rasa, however. The Khmer architect-priests, also fully trained as astronomers, had been building temples since the sixth century. This building activity culminated in the move to Angkor around 900, and in the final architectural perfection of Angkor Wat. Never again would Khmer architecture reach the same level of attainment and precision. Only 70 years after the death of Suryavarman, all monumental building activity at Angkor stopped and by the mid-fifteenth century, the site was abandoned due to economic reasons and the repeated invasions of Thai armies.
We know that long before the Khmers moved their capital southward to Phnom Penh, they had turned away from the gods that populated the stone and brick temples of Angkor. The people of Cambodia were converting to Hinayana Buddhism in large numbers during the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. As devotees of this widely-practiced form of Buddhism, they rejected the ancestral and regional gods that once filled the temples and unified the nation. With this rejection, the Brahmanical (Hindu) architect-priests lost their constituency. This decline in priestly support caused a slow but inexorable loss of knowledge. Decade after decade, the priests diminished in number and the practice of building astronomical alignments and data into the temples receded in memory. It is likely that by the time the Khmers moved to Phnom Penh, the architectural coding that lay hidden in Angkor Wat for eight centuries was already forgotten At least, we have no evidence that the few Brahman priests left to perform royal rites of passage were in possession of an architectural tradition that had not been practiced for approximately 150 years. With the move to Phnom Penh, Angkor and its secrets remained dormant until brought into the consciousness of the western world in the mid-nineteenth century by French explorers.
I first became excited over Angkor Wat when I discovered that two parallel corridors in the third gallery, the gallery of large bas-relief panels, were exactly 202.14 m. in length - and this precision was typical of other measurements as well. "Why would anyone build a temple to such incredible accuracy?" Intuition and logic both argued that astronomical observation might be a possible cause for these precise measurements. Dated Khmer inscriptions begin with an elaborate description of the location of the planets, sun, and moon in both the solar zodiac signs and lunar constellations on the day the event in the inscription took place. This system also mentions whether the date in question was in the waxing or waning half of the lunar month, and on which day of the week. Astronomy is listed more than once among the subjects taught to Khmer kings. Based on the evidence of stone inscriptions then, it would have been clear even to the most casual reader that astronomy played an important role in the elite strata of Khmer society.
When I first translated the measurements of Angkor Wat from meters into the original cubit length used in the construction of the temple, my suspicions about the role of astronomy were startlingly confirmed.
  • The axes of the outer enclosing wall around Angkor Wat equal 365.24 cubits repeated 12 times. In other words, the exact length of the solar year in days and in solar months is defined by the north-south and east-west axes of the temple grounds.
  • The circumference of the enclosing wall is 354.36 cubits repeated 24 times. That is equivalent to the exact length of the lunar year in days, and to the 12 waxing and 12 waning halves of the lunar month each year. (Because the phenomena of the waxing and waning moon is a dominant lunar feature, the half-months were individually named since the inception of astronomy in India. This practice was passed on to Cambodia from India long before the Angkor period.)
As the analysis of the measurements of Angkor Wat unfolded over the next ten years of my research, it became more and more apparent
  • that the circumferences of the temple were primarily dedicated to the moon while the axes of the galleries, enclosures, and individual chambers tended to focus on the sun. This is one of many patterns that characterize the temple's measurements. Another such pattern is the steady progression from measurements embodying the largest time cycles around the periphery of the temple to measurements focusing on smaller time cycles in the central galleries. A full exegesis of these patterns is not possible in the short space of this essay, however, it is worth noting that the measurements of Angkor Wat are highly systematized and logical. They include all time measurements known to the Cambodians in the twelfth century.
As a brilliant example of the synthesis of astronomy and architecture at Angkor Wat, the solar axes of the temple lead directly to the central sanctuary, a sanctum sanctorum devoted to the supreme solar god, Lord Vishnu. Vishnu manifests as one of the solar months, and the sun itself is thought to be his emanation. As we walk along the solar axes toward the god Vishnu, we encounter two major solar alignments.
First of all, if we stand at the beginning of the bridge into Angkor Wat on the solstice days, at the intersection of the triad of western staircases, we will see the sun rise directly over the two end gateways of the main western entrance. Although observation has not been studied from this juncture on the equinox days, the central entrance tower acts as an architectural pivot for the north-south oscillation of the sun, and by its central position between the solstice gateways, is a symbol for the two equinoxes. As we shall see, there is reason to believe that Suryavarman was crowned king of Cambodia at the time of the spring equinox.
On the morning of the vernal equinox day (roughly March 21st each year), once we have passed through the main western entrances and stand facing the interior grounds of the temple, we encounter a spectacular solar alignment . At 6:35 a.m., the sun can be seen rising dead-center over the top of the central tower of the temple - about 500 m. away - when observed from the top of the first northern staircase of the western causeway. Three days later, the sun can be seen rising over the central tower for the second and last time, from the center of the western causeway at a point just a few meters south of the first observation position. We know that the Khmers celebrated their new year for three days. The new year began on the spring equinox, but the first day of the new year in an actual count did not begin until three days after the equinox. This three-day new year period is both reflected and corroborated in these two consecutive spring equinox alignments that occur just after entering Angkor Wat.
The sun was thought to begin its yearly journey on the vernal equinox day. Therefore, as the Khmers at Angkor watched the sun rise up from the central tower, it would seem as though the god Vishnu inside the sanctuary were emanating upward and outward as the solar orb. It is highly likely that music, chanting, and ritual invocation inaugurated the new year at this annual event.
The central image of Vishnu - lost long ago - may have been sculpted in the likeness of King Suryavarman. Statements in the stone inscriptions refer to images in the likeness of real people, not just kings. The statue of Vishnu would have been sculpted with royal jewelry and clothing, and the name of this image - also lost to us - would have been combined with the name of the king according to Khmer tradition. If Suryavarman was not exactly an incarnation of Vishnu, he still partook of some aspect of Vishnu's sacred nature. The name of the sun god is Surya, and "Suryavarman" translates as "protected by the sun." With the union of the king and Vishnu in the central sanctuary of Angkor Wat, the king becomes an unspoken third component in the spring equinox alignment.
Angkor Wat - like all royal pyramid-temples - was at the conceptual center of the king's capital. The city and the nation extended outward from the union of the king and his deity in the main sanctuary of this temple. For all 37 years of the reign of King Suryavarman then, the Khmer nation was particularly joined to the sun god and to Vishnu, through the temple of Angkor Wat and the king. More than just the king alone, the entire nation was "protected by the sun." The solar measurements and solar alignments at Angkor Wat were concomitantly much more meaningful as their influence and importance extended from the hub of the nation outward.
Although the sun gains stature through its conjunction with the center of Angkor Wat, Vishnu, and the king, it is worth noting that lunar alignments are also recorded along the western axis of the temple. If we look again at the dimensions noted above, we see that the western causeway measures out two ways of defining the lunar month. These are the actual days in a synodic month (29.53), and the maximum number of days of lunar visibility (28) - numerically equivalent to the maximum number of lunar constellations crossed by the moon each month. This causeway that was used for lunar observation thereby records lunar measurements at the same time. The causeway's overlay of multiple functions is typical of the measurement patterns at Angkor Wat.
Finally, there is a bas-relief of the Churning of the Sea of Milk on the east side of the third gallery that is actually a calendar in disguise. The story behind the churning of the Milky Way begins with the gods losing battle after battle to their enemies, the asuras. Worried that they would be hopelessly decimated, the gods supplicated Lord Vishnu to help them churn up the elixir of immortality from the Milky Way. Once they drank the elixir, they could never "lose" a battle again. But the task of churning the Milky Way was of epic proportions. Ironically, once Vishnu agreed to their request, the gods had to trick the asuras into joining in the churning effort by promising them a part of the elixir.
Mount Mandara, a mountain to the east of the central, cosmic mountain, Mount Meru, was uprooted and brought to the Milky Way to act as a churning pivot. The snake Vasuki who lives in the Milky Way was wrapped around the pivot, with the gods pulling on the north side of the snake and the asuras on the south side. Vishnu took his place at the center to help with the churning, and also emanated both one asura form and one god form to further help on each side of the snake. His avatar or incarnation as Kurma, the legendary tortoise, placed itself under the base of the churning pivot so it would not sink. With everyone in place, the great churning event began.
Many auspicious objects were churned up from the Milky Ocean, including the goddess of good fortune. But when the elixir finally emerged, the gods and asuras began to battle over its possession. Lord Vishnu, in his wisdom, took the elixir away with him for safekeeping, but when the battle ended the elixir remained forever out of reach. Both the gods and the asuras were destined to be mortal. Once the battle was over and the dust had settled, Indra was crowned king of the gods and the story ends.
Astronomical or geophysical realities are woven like invisible threads throughout the preceding narrative. For example, the cosmic mountain, Mount Meru, is conceived as the axis of the earth. The Khmers knew the earth was a round sphere moving through space because they had inherited that knowledge from India, where it was first recorded in the sixth century CE. The gods reside at the north celestial pole, including the summit of Mount Meru - the location of Indra's royal palace. The summit has been flattened to accommodate the palace. At the south celestial pole, on the opposite end of Mount Meru, are the asuras. When Mount Mandara is used as a churning pivot, the gods pull the pivot to the north and the asuras pull it to the south, creating a north-south oscillation. This accounts for the north-south oscillation of the sun and moon each year, while the axis of the earth, Mount Meru, remains stable (precession notwithstanding, "stable" is a good descriptive word for the axis in comparison to the oscillation of the sun and moon). In most Khmer - and indeed, in most Asian depictions of the cosmic mountain, the sun and moon are shown in space at some distance to the right and left of the mountain's peak. This seems to be either a conscious or unconscious memory of the astronomical significance of the mountain in the churning scene. For whether it is logical or not, due to human fallibility the pivot of the churning scene tended to become identified with Mount Meru. This obfuscation is more commonly found than the actual recognition of Mount Mandara as the churning pivot.
According to evidence from Thai records and Khmer inscriptions, the churning of the Milky Way was performed at the coronation of Khmer (and occasional Thai) kings. The inauguration ceremony of a new king took place at the vernal equinox. Therefore, the coronation of King Suryavarman most likely occurred at the equinox day in March (the year remains in question) soon after he came to power. Although King Suryavarman was crowned before the central tower of Angkor Wat was anywhere near finished, future equinox risings of the sun at dead center on the top of the main tower would forever recall the exact moment when Suryavarman became king. The equinox, the sun, the temple, Vishnu, and the king were therefore joined in a moment of history that was to be recalled, year after year, at the spring equinox sunrise over Angkor Wat.
The calendrical meaning of the churning relief is equally inseparable from its association with the spring equinox coronation of King Suryavarman. In fact, the number of gods and asuras in the relief count out the days between the winter and summer solstices, and the three-day equinox celebration at the beginning of the new year is symbolized by the central pivot. The god Bali, the king of the asuras holds the heads of Vasuki on the south side of the relief. During the winter solstice, the rising sun illuminates Bali completely. This agrees with the 24-hours of sunlight at the south pole at this time of year. Meanwhile, the monkey-god Sugriva who holds the tail of Vasuki on the north end of the relief panel remains in darkness at the winter solstice, in a shadow cast by a pillar. Since the gods reside above the north pole of the earth, they would be in darkness at this time of year. On the summer solstice, the sunlight and shadow effect is reversed for Bali and Sugriva, as it should be to match the light and dark at the north and south poles, respectivelyOn the equinox days, the center of the scene with Vishnu and Mount Mandara is bathed in full sunlight.
A deva is flying down to steady the pivot of Mount Mandara and is most likely representative of the god Indra before he was crowned king. Only an important god could be placed in this high position, above the other gods. This figure also provides an alternate count of one extra day when needed to complete the calendar.
In Indian texts, the coronation of Indra occurs just before the coronation ceremony outlined for an earthly king, at the time of the spring equinox. This bas-relief itself, in fact, appears to symbolize the coronation of King Suryavarman and the churning event that was enacted at that time.
In summary, the solar axis of Angkor Wat takes us visually and physically in a straight line from the main entrance to the central tower. As we walk along the numerical symbol for the solar year, we would see the sun and moon oscillate from north to south and back again, on either side of the axis. Once the axis reaches the central galleries, it visually ascends upward at an ever-increasing angle until it merges with the vertical height of the central tower. On the vernal equinox day, as the sun appears to rise up from the top of the tower, it is joined to us along the axis of the temple.
Vishnu lies hidden inside the tower, looking very much like the king of Cambodia in both his physiognomy and his refined jewelry and clothing. Thus, the merging of Vishnu and the king at the symbolic center of the Khmer nation was especially celebrated at the symbolic center of the solar year, when the sun is midway between its northern and southern extremes. When this profound solar, divine, and royal union was given its architectural expression in the central tower of Angkor Wat, astronomy and architecture were joined in homage to divinity and royalty. As mentioned earlier, the tower is the axis of the temple and by extension, the axis of the Khmer nation. The king and Vishnu are joined at this same axis, likened to the axis of the earth in the cosmological design of Angkor Wat. That very equinoctial axis slices through the center of the sun's oscillating movement each year. At dawn on the vernal equinox day, the union of the king and Vishnu at the heart of the Cambodian nation was celebrated with the rising sun at the heart of the annual solar journey, and at the heart of Angkor Wat. Astronomy was thus inextricably conjoined to the most profound expression of the meaning of kingship and divinity accorded in Khmer sacred architecture. The solar and lunar alignments at Angkor Wat were alignments with the gods, alignments that tied the nation to the heavens above, and alignments that imbued the king with the power to rule by divine association. As the measurements of solar and lunar time cycles were built into the sacred space of Angkor Wat, this divine mandate to rule was anchored to consecrated chambers and corridors meant to perpetuate the king's power and to honor and placate the deities manifest in the heavens above. Rarely has a temple achieved such an overwhelming conjunction of time, space, and kingship through the perfect union of architecture and astronomy.



















Q1. Which temple it is-hindu or buddhist? If hindu then what is theme and main lord?
Ans : 
It is Hindu temple dedicated to Lord Vishu- supreme of Indian Gods.
Theme-This is mainly showing 10 (9 past+ 1 future) incarnations of Lord Vishnu
-2nd Kurma Tortoise
-Mohini
-7th-Rama
-8th-Krishna
-9th-Buddha
if out of 9 past incarnations 5 we have seen-there may be rest 4 also which are, if they exists it completes the Vishnu incarnation theory.
Q2.Is ankor wat a temple or mortuary- why its facing west when all others are facing east.
Ans : 
Temple.
It is sure a temple n not a mortuary due to
-rest of all temples are East facing.so how can a such fabulous masterpiece be ?Khmer knew the temple is always in EAST as rest of all their temples are east facing.
-Lord Vishnu image cant be in mortuary
-Indian never bury inside temple-they burn the body usually near holy river.
-symmetry of temple is missing as per hindu mythology.
-what we are seeing is perhaps only west gate which is back side entry
-if we see the satellite pics and carefully examine the moat from top view-its clearly visible that Moat has a much wider passage on East and this is only place which is still not having any water at all .It proves it as front gate as usually front gates are bigger while back gate is smaller.
-what is just missing a passage way linking to east front.
-East gate is either damaged or most probably buried underground somewhere nearby there or even the construction of the temple may not have been completed.
-a very correct place to dig out may be just same distance in opposite direction.
It’s a very sound thought to explore by researchers about its main front gate.
Q3. Who is 10th future incarnation? -do temple show it somewhere too?Ans : -Yes perhaps.
I think it shall be shown somewhere definetly
–A God with White dressed man with sword n horse

Q4. Can we speculate expected period of 10th incarnation?

Ans : yes perhaps if we can understand their times-distance calculation theory
Q5. Did elephant ,horses go inside temple from side 2 gates as being told by Guides?
Ans : No as no animal can go inside any temple. Further its found that the side gates are man created n not originals
Q6. Is centre main statue of budda correct?
Ans : No –it has to be a fabulous Lord Vishnu Statue-being the main character. Probably lost or stolen
Logic-if someone is making such a beautiful masterpiece of art ,astrology ,numerology and so big efforts n describing a main Lord or his incarnation ,obviously from even an average man’s common sense they will put main daiety(Lord Vishnu) in central place and not its one of incarnations.
Q7. What is relevance of sunset viewing?
Ans : Perhaps Narshingh avatar times-demon king had a blessing that
he cant be killed
in day or in nite
by man or animal
in home or outside
by weapon
by human or god or demon
that day lord appear from a pillar on GODULI VELA (when sun is just setting-so its neither day nor night)-in form of half lion n half man (this story is also visible in … temple ) .This is exact time when the sunsets. I think there shall be somewhere picture of this event –n this pic shall be lightened on this particular day.
Q8. Is watching temple in golden color right from moth entry side?
Ans : 
Perhaps it gives the panoramic view
but if may be much better spiritual feeling if someone watches it from centre I think it will be more appealing giving a feeling of lord sun appearing from Pillar with golden aura all across giving a very holy feeling.
Q9. Do Lord Buddha ever had 4 heads?
Ans : Never, so eventually it may be Lord Brahma’s statues but misunderstood.

Q10. Do Lord Brahma has temples?
Ans : 
Very rate due to a curse by Indian history that Brahma will not be worshiped
Probably due to this even if they exist, they are mistaken with other identity

Q11. What is relation of Vishnu n Sun?
Ans : Lord Vishnu carries a very powerful golden chakra called sudershan chakra with eronmous killing power and eminating golden rays in his first finger. This is why perhaps its more aimed on solar correlations as compared to lunar.
Q12. What is November and March analogy In India-any relationships to them?
Ans : Most of Indian festivals r calculated based on lunar calendar –so it will be more appropriate if light effect is studied on lunar system n correlating Indian festivals
For example the biggest Indian festival is pertaining to Lord rama-diwali which is somewhere mostly in November. Usually on Amawasya- no moon day
Second biggest festival Holi lies in March –on purnima on full moon evening
Hopefully this shall
It is said on these days days n night is equal

Q13. Why 13th April is National day of khmer –same as India?
Ans : In India still 13th april is a big festival –called Baishaki which is representing new year for farmers as they celebrate it after having good harvest.
More relevant in temple contest is:- appearing of sun on 3 days.
Is it just a mere coincidence??
        10 Incarnation of Lord VISHNU
                (DASHA AVTAAR)

The ten incarnations of Vishnu is a Hindu theological concept in Vedic history. Vishnu exists as the Creator and also within every being as our soul, our Supreme. He also enters or descend to our world in the form of Avataar whenever his presence is needed.

Avataar is described by Lord Krishna - Whenever there is a decline of religion, and a rise of irreligion, I incarnate myself. To protect the good, to destroy the wicked, and to re-establish religious principles, I appear in every age - ( Bhagavad Gita )

The Ten Avataars or Dasha Avataar of Vishnu are important and very interesting as you can see that he incarnates progressively from fish to human form.
 
Shri Ram Avtaar- The king
Matsya Avtaar

The VEDAS, with the aid of which, BRAHMA, the creator God, performs his role, happened to slip out of his possession at a moment of his respite. An ASURA (Enemy of God) who was alert observed it and instantly devoured them. But, Vishnu, the preserver-God, was watching this. Since PRALAYA - Dissolution - was to follow soon, the VEDAS would be lost for the next spell of Creation, unless they were retrieved.
As God was wondering what was to be done, he noticed Sage Satyavrata, who was doing penance subsisting on water alone, making the ritual offering of water of God. God immediately assumed the form of a Fish. As satyavrata scooped water from the flowing river, he espied a tiny fish in the water he had scooped. When he tried to put it back into the river, the Fish entered the sage not to do so as it would be eaten up by the big fishes in the river. Satyavrata took pity and took it into his KAMANDALU and went back to his hermitage. Overnight, the Fish grew too big to be in the Kamandalu.
The next morning when the sage looked it up, the Fish requested him to remove him to a larger vessel. Satyavarta did so but soon the fish became too big for the larger vessel also. Addressing the Sage, the Fish said that he should protect him and find a suitable living space for it. Satyavarta then emptied the vessel into a large pond near the hermitage along with the Fish. But, in no time the Fish grew as large as the pond and filled it. Then the Fish exhorted the Sage to take it to a large and deep lake. Although Satyavarta took it to several lakes, one larger than the other, the Fish kept growing and bigger and bigger. It went on asking for larger and larger living space.
Sathyavarata got vexed and decided to put it into the ocean. While he reached the ocean, the Fish addressed him thus: "oh Sage, do not put me into the ocean, I am sure to be swallowed by the gigantic creature there." Satyavarta became suspicious now. He was despairing to know how a fish could in a day grow so big as the largest lake and still find it not big enough for it to live there. In a flash, he realised that it was Lord Vishnu in the form of Fish. Satyavrata immediately prostrated before the Fish and prayed to be told why God had appeared in the form of Fish. The Lord told his devotee, "Just a week from now, the ocean will rise and inundate the entire Universe for the dissolution of creation. At that time you will see a spacious boat approaching you. Do collect all the seeds, plants and animals required for the next spell of creation and get into the boat and await me. Take VASUKI, the kind of Serpents, also with you. The SAPTHA RISHIS (seven Sages) will also be with you".
The Fish left for fulfilling its mission. Hayagriva saw the gigantic fish approaching him and was overtaken by fear. He held the VEDAS tightly in his mouth. But soon the Divine Fish slew him and recovered the VEDAS and restored them to BRAHMA for him to resume the function of CREATION at the appropriate time.
As foretold by the DIVINE FISH, PRALAYA (deluge) set in and on the turbulent waters, a boat appeared. Sage Satyavrata, the Saptha Rishis and all the living creatures found haven in the boat. The Fish in the colour of gold and now with a horn came by and ordered that the boat be tied to its horn using VASUKI as a rope. While the boat floated safely on the rising and enveloping waters, VISHNU taught the Rishis the highest form of Truth. This collection of truth has come to us in the form of MATSYA PURANA.
Lord VISHNU in this manner saved his True Devotees from dissolution so as to hand down divine knowledge and saved the VEDAS from destruction so as ensure CREATION after the DISSOLUTION.
Kurma Avtaar  
In the aftermath of a curse by Sage Durvasa, Devas and and their king, INDRA, had become inglorious and powerless. It was as though they had been abandoned by Gods. They remained engulfed in darkness.
Their eternal foes, ASURAS, were quick to seize the opportunity and conquer the emaciated Devas. Indra was dethroned and driven out along with his subjects. Feeling helpless and utterly humiliated, they went to BRAHMA, the Creator, and sought his help, explaining their predicament. Brahma took them to the abode of VISHNU, since it is the latter who preserves the order of the universe. Indra and Devas surrendered to VISHNU and prayed for their redemption.
Lord VISHNU told them that the only way out for them was to secure the NECTAR of IMMORTALITY: and for that, they would have to strive immensely and (a) cast all kinds of plants, herbs, grassed and creepers into the Ocean of Milk, and (b) churn the ocean using Mount MANDARA as a churn-staff and VASUKI, the king of the serpents, as the rope for turning it. But how to shift the Mount, was the big question. VISHNU suggested that they make peace with their cousins and enemies and enlist their cooperation and help, and achieve their purpose. At the same time HE cautioned them not to covet any of the things that come out of the ocean and not to get angry even if those things were forcibly taken posession of by the ASURAS. HE assured them, however, that he would see to it that the ASURAS did not enjoy any portion of the NECTAR, no matter how much they toiled.
While BRAHMA returned to his own abode, INDRA and the Devas made their journey to the court of Bali, king of the ASURAS. On seeing INDRA and the Devas approaching them, King Bali's followers were furious and about to attack and capture them. However, Bali counselled patience suggesting that they might after all be coming with a proposal which might benefit the Asuras as well. Accordingly, King Bali received Indra and the Devas with due honours. INDRA told the King why they had come to him and requested him to extend his help for the venture from which all of them could benefit.
Bali and his Chiefs agreed to the proposal. Asuras and Devas made peace between themselves. Indra and Bali rallied their forces and began the task of lifting Mount Mandara. Uprooting the mount, they set out carrying it to the seashore. Even before they had carried it halfway, the forces found themselves unable to carry it any longer; and soon the mount came crashing on them. Large numbers of Devas and Asuras lay dead under it. Indra was heartbroken. While he was still thinking of appealing to Lord Vishnu, God appeared on the spot on his Vahana - Garuda - and by His mere glance revived the dead; and placing Mount Mandara on Garuda's back, He flew to the seashore, where the Devas and Asuras too followed. After the mount was safely brought down, Lord Vishnu asked Garuda to withdraw from the scene, lest VASUKI should keep himself away for fear of his natural enemy ( Garuda ). When he saw that Garuda was no longer there, VASUKI, arrived on the scene obeying the summons of VISHNU. The Lord assured the Serpent King that he too would get a share of the Nectar and that the rugged surface of the mount would not hurt him. Vasuki, in tune with his role, allowed himself to be wound around MANDARA as the churning rope.
Devas and Asuras were very joyous and began churning the ocean with Mandara and Vasuki in place. But their joy was shortlived. Mount Mandara had no support and so sank into the ocean within a shortwhile. The mightiest of Devas and Asuras could not hold it.
There was only one who could do it and it was Lord Vishnu. Assuming the form of a huge Tortoise(KURMA), the Lord plunged into the ocean and came up with the mountain on his back. The Lord had come to their rescue again. The Devas and Asuras lost no time to get back to their job of churning. However much they churned nothing came out of their efforts. They became weary and depressed. Lord intervened once more and did the churning too.
With the churning in full steam, the concentrate of the impurities of the ocean threw up the deadly poison, HALAHALA. The poisonous fumes choked the Devas and Asuras. Not knowing what to do, Devas ran to Lord SHIVA collected it in his palm and swallowed it. As soon as the poison was removed, the Devas and Asuras resumed churning. As they churned and churned many precious things came to the surface but not the Nectar.
Suddenly a being emerged with a jar in his arms. It was Dhanwantari with the jar of the nectar of IMMORTALLITY. The Asuras were quick to surmise that it was Nectar in the jar. They rushed towards Dhanwantari and snatched the jar from him and started quarrelling for getting the Nectar first.
Devas watched the Asuras each one of whom was trying to grab the nectar for himself before everyone else. They were annoyed but kept their cool remembering the Lord's warning that they should not covet any precious thing coming out of the ocean or become angry over anything. Lord Vishnu appeared before them and approved their conduct and told them that He will charm the Asuras with the powers and secure the nectar from them.
The Asuras already stood divided over partaking the Nectar. They now noticed a woman, who was the most beautiful that they had ever seen, approaching them. They were all struck by the dazzling beauty of the woman and they turned to enjoying the unrivalled beauty of the form, the limbs, the features and what not, of this enchanting figure. They didn't however know that it was none other than Lord Vishnu who had descended before them in that bewitching form, in the form of MOHINI and He had a purpose in assuming the form.
In a state of infatuation, the Asuras gifted the Jar of Nectar to this beautiful woman and prayed to her to distribute it among them and bring peace and amity among themselves. Mohini condescended to do it but on condition that they would not question her actions, whatever they might be. The Asuras, not knowing who she was and totally under the spell of her charm, readily agreed to her condition. "Go bathe and assemble yourselves in one row with your cousins, the Devas in another row." ordered Mohini. When they were all assembled in two separate rows, Mohini began serving the Nectar to the Devas first. The Asuras were uneasy but chose to keep quiet as they had promised not to question her actions. By the time the last of the Devas in their row had been served, Mohini had made sure that there was no Nectar left to be served to the Asuras. Nectar of immortality would only cause untold harm and destruction, if granted to aggressive and unscrupulous beings like the Asuras.
Then to the amazement of Asuras, Lord Vishnu assumed his own form and the Asuras realised that it was Vishnu who had appeared before them as Mohini. They demanded of Vishnu their share of Nectar; but they got only a smile from him in return. Mounting GARUDA, Lord Vishnu flew away from them.
The Asuras felt cheated and immediately started attacking the Devas. With God on their side and with the Nectar inside, the Devas had regained their original splendour and strength and they were able to conquer the Asuras, who had to flee before the might of Devas. On the advice of Lord BRAHMA, conveyed through Sage Narada, INDRA called off the hostilities and returned to his realms with the Devas.
The Lord thus did revive and restore the lost glory of those who were righteous and who sought refuge in him; and subdue those who were aggressive an unrighteous and who didn't repose faith in him.
Lord VISHNU in this manner saved his True Devotees from dissolution so as to hand down divine knowledge and saved the VEDAS from destruction so as ensure CREATION after the DISSOLUTION.
Varaha Avtaar 
After PRALAYA, it was the beginning of a new KALPA. BRAHMA, the Creator, was busy in the work of creation. BHOOMADEVI (Mother Earth) was being tossed about in the turbulent waves; ultimately she was pushed to the bottom of the ocean. Brahma was troubled. He had to bring the Earth up, out of the deluge. He meditated on Lord VISHNU. "O Lord, please come to my rescue and recover Mother Earth" Brahma prayed. As He prayed to the Lord, a tiny white boar, smaller than his thumb, emerged out on one of his nostrils. Brahma was amazed and gazed at it. Instantly it grew and grew and became larger than an elephant. Brahma was wondering whether it was not Lord Vishnu himself in that form. The boar was yet growing in size and attained a colossal form. Brahma was convinced that it was Lord Vishnu himself.
With a terrifying mighty roar, the Boar leaped into the air, pierced the clouds and came down diving into the ocean. It raced to the bottom of the ocean in search of the Earth. Searching tirelessly, it found Mother Earth at the other end of the ocean-bed. Digging his tusk into the ocean-bed, the Boar lifted BHOOMIDEVI on to it; and proceeded to rise to the surface.
An ASURA by name HIRANYAKSHA had become mighty and powerful after a rigourous penence to BRAHMA from whom he had obtained boons. He went about challenging, threatening and conquering the Devas. Unable to face him, Devas had to go into hiding. Hiranyakasha, goaded by the arrogance of power, was spoiling for fight. He went up to VARUNA, lord of the waters and Guardian of Hydrosphere, and in pretended humility, implored him for a fight. Varuna knew that he was not equal to the Asura in prowess and the Asura was only mocking at him by acting humble. He controlled his anger and replied the Asura, " I am too old to fight and I have given up fighting. Not all can be equal to you. Only Lord Vishnu will be a match for you. Please go to him and engage him in fight."
Coming across Sage Narada the Asura learnt that Vishnu was rising to the surface from the ocean-bed carrying BHOOMADEVI on his tusk - in the form of a boar - immediately he charged into the ocean and spotted the Lord in the act of rescuing the earth. "Hey beast, leave Bhoomadevi alone and come and fight me" shouted the Asura, chasing the animal. The Lord ignored his taunts as he had to, first of all, take BHOOMADEVI out of the ocean and put her to safety. As soon as He reached the surface of the ocean, the Lord placed her gently on it and blessed her. "May you fit into the Divine order" blessed the Lord.
He now turned to Hiranyaksha and responded to his call for a fight. Hiranyaksha became furious and attacked the animal. The boar cleverly warded off his attack and counter-attacked with a mace. They were thus engaged in a furious fight, when Brahma appeared on the scene. "Twilight is approaching and in an hour he will become more powerfull and formidable. So, slay him quickly and rid us all of his menace" Brahma exhorted the boar. Hearing what Brahma told the animal, Hiranyaksha, in a fit of fury, hurled his mace at the animal. The animal caught hold of the mace as if it were a toy. Hiranyaksha now started hitting the animal on its chest with his powerful fists. The Boar in turn hit the Asura behind his ears. Hiranyaksha reeled and fell down dead.
Brahma and Devas praised the Lord and sang His eternal glory.
Narasimnha Avtaar
In NARASIMHA Avatar, Lord Vishnu incarnates himself as a semi-man,semi-lion in this world. The king of demons(asuras), Hiranyakasyapa, wanted to become immortal and wanted to remain young forever. To this end, he meditated for Lord Brahma and because of his severe penance, the gods were frightened and asked Brahma to pacify the king. Brahma was impressed by his austerity and granted him a wish. HiranyaKasyapa wished that he be neither killed by a man or beast, nor in daylight or at night and neither inside or outside a building. Having obtained the wish he considered himself the supreme God and frobade all worship of gods by anyone. But his son Prahlada, was an ardent devotee of Vishnu. This enraged Hiranyakasyapa very much. He ordered numerous ways to kill Prahlada including asking his sister Holika to sit with Prahlada in the fire. But everytime Prahlada escaped unhurt. Enraged, once he asked Prahlad to show him the Lord Vishnu. Prahlad said, "He is everywhere". Further enraged, Hiranyakasyapa knocked down a pillar, and asked if Lord was present there. Lord Vishnu then emerged as a half lion, half man from the pillar which was neither inside the house nor outside, and the time was evening, neither night nor day. He then killed Hiranyakasyapa thus saving the life of his devotee Prahlad
So goes the story of Hiranyakasyapa and the NARASIMHA avatar.
Vamana Avtaar
In VAMANA Avatar, Lord Vishnu incarnates himself as a dwarf priest in this world. BALI, the grandson of Prahlada was a very valorous and mighty asura. By his penance and might, he conquered the whole world. Indra and other gods fearing that he and asuras would conquer all the three worlds, went to Lord Vishnu for help. Lord Vishnu was then born as a dwarf Vamana in the household of a brahmana(priest). He went to Bali on growing up and asked for alms. Bali was delighted to offer him anything he requested even though his priest warned him that it was Lord Vishnu
Vamana then requested for the amount of land that could come under his three feet. Bali gracefully agreed. Lord Vishnu then grew in size and covered the earth and heaven in two stride. And due to lack of space, he put his third leg on Bali himself and crushed Bali to the nether or the Patala loka(underground world), thus helping the Gods out.
Parashurama Avtaar
In PARASURAMA Avatar, Lord Vishnu incarnates himself as a brahmana(priest) in this world. He was brought in this world to avenge all kshatriyas who had become arrogant and were suppressing the brahmans in the world. He was born to Jamadagni and Renuka, and belonged to the Brighu clan. Parashurama was always carrying an axe presented to him by Lord Shiva of whom he was an ardent devotee. Kartavirya a powerful king, once went to Jamadagni's home when he was out, and after a meal, stole the Kamadhenu cow, which was supposed to give endless quantity of milk. Jamadgni was enraged and he went and killed the king and brought Kamadhenu back. On hearing this the son of the king came back and killed Jamdagni.
Parasurama was enraged at this and went and avenged the death of his father by killing all kshatriyas in 21 battles. His story is story of the supremacy of brahmans over the kshatriyas.
Krishna Avtaar
In KRISHNA Avatar, Lord Vishnu incarnates himself as KRISHNA , the central character in the epic MAHABHARATA. In this biggest epic of Indian mythology a myriad of topics are covered, including war, love, brotherhood, politics etc. It is essentially the story of two warring groups of cousin brothers, the PANDAVAs and the KAURAVAs. As a part of the Mahabahrata, during the war KRISHNA, gives a long discourse to his disciple ARJUNA, collectively termed as Bhagvad-Gita. Krishna, during his child-hood was responsible for the killing of Kansa. Krishna is also considered to be an ultimate playboy who was resonsible for charming all gopikaas(cowherdesses) around him.
Unlike Ramayana, Mahabharata deals with more down to earth issues like politics, human nature, human weaknesses, and does not attempt to idealise the characters as in RAMAYANA.

Buddha Avtaar
In BUDDHA Avatar, Lord Vishnu incarnates himself as BUDDHA, the ascetic prince who renounced the throne to lead the world on the path of peace. He is the founder of the BUDDHIST religion prominent across the world. In certain sects of Hinduism, he is considered to be a divine incarnation of Lord Vishnu. He was born the crown prince of the Kapilavastu to Suddhodana and Maya. He was named Siddhartha, meaning "All thing fulfilled" by the king. But his mother died soon after his birth but Prajapati, the sister of Maya, brought Siddhartha up.
Buddha was saddened by death of living creatures, since his childhood days and used to question: "Alas! Do all living creatures kill each other?". He wasn't happy with any answers that were provided to him and he decided to find out the meaning and the absolute truth and he left his wife and child to a hermit's life in the forest and one day, became the enlightened one. His preachings spawned off the religion of Buddhism now popular across the whole world.
 

Kalki Avtaar

In KALKI Avatar, Lord Vishnu will incarnate himself as KALKI, the machine-man, who will come riding his white horse and with his blazing sword in his hands. This is supposed to be a future avatar of Lord Vishnu. At the end of Kali Yuga (present eon) He will punish all evil doers in this world, destroy this world supposedly and recreate a golden age again
KALKI is the last of the avatars of Lord Vishnu.

For photo's click this link:- http://www.goldkist.net/angkorwat/angkorphoto.htm
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